Future Proof
List of Biases About the Future
Original table from Wikipedia, 3rd column is my own.
Future bias?
The tendency to avoid options for which the probability of a favorable outcome is unknown.[10]
Anchoring or focalism
The tendency to rely too heavily, or "anchor", on one trait or piece of information when making decisions (usually the first piece of information acquired on that subject).[11][12]
The tendency to use human analogies as a basis for reasoning about other, less familiar, biological phenomena.[13]
Anthropomorphism or personification
The tendency to characterize animals, objects, and abstract concepts as possessing human-like traits, emotions, and intentions.[14]
The tendency of perception to be affected by recurring thoughts.[15]
Occurs when a judgment has to be made (of a target attribute) that is computationally complex, and instead a more easily calculated heuristic attribute is substituted. This substitution is thought of as taking place in the automatic intuitive judgment system, rather than the more self-aware reflective system.
The tendency to depend excessively on automated systems which can lead to erroneous automated information overriding correct decisions.[16]
The tendency to overestimate the likelihood of events with greater "availability" in memory, which can be influenced by how recent the memories are or how unusual or emotionally charged they may be.[17]
A self-reinforcing process in which a collective belief gains more and more plausibility through its increasing repetition in public discourse (or "repeat something long enough and it will become true").[18]
The reaction to disconfirming evidence by strengthening one's previous beliefs.[19] cf. Continued influence effect.
The tendency to do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same. Related to groupthink and herd behavior.[20]
Base rate fallacy or Base rate neglect
The tendency to ignore general information and focus on information only pertaining to the specific case, even when the general information is more important.[21]
An effect where someone's evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by the believability of the conclusion.[22]
A person who has performed a favor for someone is more likely to do another favor for that person than they would be if they had received a favor from that person.[23]
The tendency to misinterpret statistical experiments involving conditional probabilities.[24]
The tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people, or to be able to identify more cognitive biases in others than in oneself.[25]
The tendency to remember one's choices as better than they actually were.[26]
The tendency to overestimate the importance of small runs, streaks, or clusters in large samples of random data (that is, seeing phantom patterns).[12]
The predisposition to behave more compassionately towards a small number of identifiable victims than to a large number of anonymous ones.[27]

Social biases[edit]

Most of these biases are labeled as attributional biases.
The tendency for explanations of other individuals' behaviors to overemphasize the influence of their personality and underemphasize the influence of their situation (see also Fundamental attribution error), and for explanations of one's own behaviors to do the opposite (that is, to overemphasize the influence of our situation and underemphasize the influence of our own personality).
The tendency to attribute greater accuracy to the opinion of an authority figure (unrelated to its content) and be more influenced by that opinion.[100]
The tendency for people to appear more attractive in a group than in isolation.[101]
Attributing more blame to a harm-doer as the outcome becomes more severe or as personal or situational similarity to the victim increases.
Occurs when people claim more responsibility for themselves for the results of a joint action than an outside observer would credit them with.
An exception to the fundamental attribution error, when people view others as having (situational) extrinsic motivations and (dispositional) intrinsic motivations for oneself
The tendency for people to overestimate the degree to which others agree with them.[102]
The tendency of people to see their projects and themselves as more singular than they actually are.[103]
The tendency for people to over-emphasize personality-based explanations for behaviors observed in others while under-emphasizing the role and power of situational influences on the same behavior[77] (see also actor-observer bias, group attribution error, positivity effect, and negativity effect).[78]
The biased belief that the characteristics of an individual group member are reflective of the group as a whole or the tendency to assume that group decision outcomes reflect the preferences of group members, even when information is available that clearly suggests otherwise.
The tendency for a person's positive or negative traits to "spill over" from one personality area to another in others' perceptions of them (see also physical attractiveness stereotype).[104]
People perceive their knowledge of their peers to surpass their peers' knowledge of them.[105]
When people view self-generated preferences as instead being caused by insightful, effective and benevolent agents.
People overestimate others' ability to know themselves, and they also overestimate their ability to know others.
Overestimating one's desirable qualities, and underestimating undesirable qualities, relative to other people. (Also known as "Lake Wobegon effect", "better-than-average effect", or "superiority bias".)[106]
The tendency for people to give preferential treatment to others they perceive to be members of their own groups.
The tendency for people to want to believe that the world is fundamentally just, causing them to rationalize an otherwise inexplicable injustice as deserved by the victim(s).
The tendency for people to ascribe greater or lesser moral standing based on the outcome of an event.
Expecting more egocentric bias in others than in oneself.

Memory errors and biases[edit]

Main article: List of memory biases
In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory. There are many types of memory bias, including:
Bizarre material is better remembered than common material.
Conservatism or Regressive bias
Tendency to remember high values and high likelihoods/probabilities/frequencies as lower than they actually were and low ones as higher than they actually were. Based on the evidence, memories are not extreme enough.[91][92]
Consistency bias
Incorrectly remembering one's past attitudes and behaviour as resembling present attitudes and behaviour.[112]
That cognition and memory are dependent on context, such that out-of-context memories are more difficult to retrieve than in-context memories (e.g., recall time and accuracy for a work-related memory will be lower at home, and vice versa).
The tendency for people of one race to have difficulty identifying members of a race other than their own.
A form of misattribution where a memory is mistaken for imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a memory.[113]
Recalling the past in a self-serving manner, e.g., remembering one's exam grades as being better than they were, or remembering a caught fish as bigger than it really was.
A bias in which the emotion associated with unpleasant memories fades more quickly than the emotion associated with positive events.[114]
A form of misattribution where imagination is mistaken for a memory.
Generation effect (Self-generation effect)
That self-generated information is remembered best. For instance, people are better able to recall memories of statements that they have generated than similar statements generated by others.
The tendency to forget information that can be found readily online by using Internet search engines.
Humor effect
That humorous items are more easily remembered than non-humorous ones, which might be explained by the distinctiveness of humor, the increased cognitive processing time to understand the humor, or the emotional arousal caused by the humor.[115]
Lag effect
The phenomenon whereby learning is greater when studying is spread out over time, as opposed to studying the same amount of time in a single session. See also spacing effect.
Memory distortions introduced by the loss of details in a recollection over time, often concurrent with sharpening or selective recollection of certain details that take on exaggerated significance in relation to the details or aspects of the experience lost through leveling. Both biases may be reinforced over time, and by repeated recollection or re-telling of a memory.[116]
That different methods of encoding information into memory have different levels of effectiveness.[117]
List-length effect
A smaller percentage of items are remembered in a longer list, but as the length of the list increases, the absolute number of items remembered increases as well. For example, consider a list of 30 items ("L30") and a list of 100 items ("L100"). An individual may remember 15 items from L30, or 50%, whereas the individual may remember 40 items from L100, or 40%. Although the percent of L30 items remembered (50%) is greater than the percent of L100 (40%), more L100 items (40) are remembered than L30 items (15).[118][further explanation needed]
Memory becoming less accurate because of interference from post-event information.[119]
That memory recall is higher for the last items of a list when the list items were received via speech than when they were received through writing.
The improved recall of information congruent with one's current mood.